Peer Review is a process that journals use to ensure the articles they publish represent the best scholarship currently available. When an article is submitted to a scholarly, peer reviewed journal, the editors send it out to other scholars in the same field (the author's peers) to get their opinion on the quality of the scholarship, its relevance to the field, its appropriateness for the journal, etc.
Alspach, J. G. (2016). "Preparing a Paper for Publication: Help Us Help You Make It Happen." Critical Care Nurse, 36(3), 7-10. doi:10.4037/ccn2016777