Per Dr. Slusher:
A primary reference is a work written by the author of the work you have accessed and referenced.
- It does NOT have to be the author’s first publication or original work on the topic, but it must be written by the original author.
- A primary reference can also be, for example, another author's own thoughts and ideas on Carper's pattern or the other author's actual application or evaluation of Carper's pattern them self, etc. To further clarify – within your Paper 1, if you are writing on one of the four patterns of knowing in nursing first identified by Carper, you must give the definition of the pattern, some discussion of the pattern, etc. based on what Carper actually stated and you must use Carper's work to reference what Carper said for the source to be primary (Carper, 1978). The same would be true for Chinn and Kramer if you are writing on the emancipatory pattern of knowing.
- Another example of a primary reference that could be used would be something such as follows (this is a fictitious example and not something I found in the literature): Smith (2020) stated that the empirical pattern of knowing is still of critical importance to nursing today with the current emphasis on evidence-based practice.