Help Citing in APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Help Writing in APA (American Psychological Association) Style

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APA Citation Elements

APA stands for American Psychological Association. Here are some quick tips for using APA style and some examples of common APA article formats. If you need more extensive help, please check out the "APA Style" box to the left. Personal assistance can be found either at the Noel Studio or by using our Ask Us chat reference service.

One Author with a DOI:

Nordhaus, W. D. (2011). The architecture of climate economics: Designing a global agreement on global warming. Bulletin Of The Atomic Scientists67(1), 9-18. doi:10.1177/0096340210392964

Multiple Authors Without a DOI (Print or Electronic):

Hall, A., & Manabe, S. (1999). The role of water vapor feedback in unperturbed climate variability and global warming. Journal of Climate12(8), 2327.

Article from an Online Periodical:

(This is an article found on a website, which is different from locating an article in one of our library databases.)

Kaser, G., & Mote, P. W. (2007). The shrinking glaciers of Kilimanjaro: Can global warming be blamed? American Scientist, 95(4). Retrieved from

The acronym DOI might be new or confusing for some. New versions of some citation styles now take into account whether or not a DOI is given for a particular article. Here is a definition of DOI from the International DOI Foundation:

"The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) System is for identifying content objects in the digital environment. DOI names are assigned to any entity for use on digital networks. They are used to provide current information, including where they (or information about them) can be found on the Internet. Information about a digital object may change over time, including where to find it, but its DOI name will not change."

Here's an example of where you can locate the DOI for an article in Academic Search Complete:

Manage Citations

Collecting and managing citations can be time consuming. Citation management tools can save you time and offer the following benefits:

  • collect citation information with one click from websites and library databases
  • organize your research all in one place
  • avoid plagiarism 
  • easily create in-text citations while writing your papers
  • automatically create correctly formatted bibliographies using standard citation styles

Save time and improve your papers - start using Zotero or Mendeley today.

Still Need Help with APA?

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Citing Sources: Why & How

Why should you cite sources? 

It is crucial to properly cite any information you use from research in your papers or projects - including information found online.  To do otherwise is plagiarism, in violation of  EKU's Academic Integrity policy.

However, citing isn't just about avoiding plagiarism. Citing your sources not only "gives credit where credit is due" by identifying authors whose ideas contributed to your own, it also allows readers to locate and explore the sources you consulted, shows the depth and scope of your research, and adds credibility to your ideas and argument.  In written academic work, citing sources is standard practice and shows that you are responding and adding something of your own to the academic conversation.

How do you cite sources?

Citations within your text link specific passages in your work to the sources you quoted, paraphrased, or consulted. Depending on the citation style you use, you will do this through in-text parenthetic notes, footnotes, or endnotes. In addition, you must include a bibliography or list of works cited at the end of your paper. The citations within your text point your reader to entries on your bibliography or list of works cited, which provides the reader with all the information he/she needs to locate the source. 

How do you choose a citation style?

Often, entire disciplines will adhere to a specific style. For example, psychology often adheres to the APA style, literature often adheres to the MLA style, and history often adheres to the Chicago or Turabian styles. Ask your instructor which style sheet he or she prefers you use. If you are submitting for publication, follow the style guidelines recommended by the publisher. 

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