Author, A. A. (Year). Title of page. Website. http://xxxxx
General copyright dates are not sufficient to use as the publication date. If no creation or publication date is given, use n.d. If the author and website are the same, omit the website.
Example 1: Author, No Date
Corcodilos, N. (n.d.). Keep your salary under wraps. Ask the Headhunter. http://www.asktheheadhunter.com/hasalary.htm
Example 2: Corporate Author
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2010). Facing down PTSD, vet is now soaring high. http://www.mentalhealth.va.gov/featureArticle_Feb.asp
Example 3: Multiple Pages from One Website
If you are using multiple pages from one website that all have the same author and date, differentiate the dates with letters. Be sure that the citations are listed alphabetically by webpage title.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014a). Be safe after a hurricane. http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/hurricanes/be-safe-after.asp
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014b). Make a plan. http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/hurricanes/plan.asp
If both items have n.d. instead of a year, include a hyphen before the differentiating letter:
Santa Fe College. (n.d.-a). Priority admissions dates. http://www.sfcollege.edu/admissions/index.php?section=priority_dates
Santa Fe College. (n.d.-b). SF to UF: A true story. http://www.sfcollege.edu/gators/true-story/index
Example 4: No Author
Appeal to authority. (n.d.). Logical Fallacies. https://www.logicalfallacies.org/appeal-to-authority.html
When citing as an in-text citation, you may abbreviate the title to the first few words, in quotations, unless the title is short:
("Appeal to Authority," n.d.)
Source: Publication Manual, 10.16 (examples 111-114); Webpage on a Website References [APA Style]
Simply give the URL of the website in the text:
The EKU Library website (https://library.eku.edu) provides many resources for the students and faculty at Eastern Kentucky University.
Source: Publication Manual, 8.22; Whole Website References [APA Style]
Author, A. A. (Year). Entry name. In Title of online dictionary. Retrieved Day Month, Year, from http://xxxxx.
Most online dictionaries will not have a date; include a retrieval date in this case.
Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Chapfallen. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved March 10, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/chapfallen
West, S. (2007). Online bully. In Urban dictionary. https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=online%20bully&defid=2639710#2639710
Source: Dictionary Entry References [APA Style]
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of entry. In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of reference work (xx ed.). Website. http://xxxxx
Example 1: Individual Author
Masolo, D. (2006). African sage philosophy. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2008 ed.). Stanford University. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/african-sage/
Example 2: Group Author
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. (n.d.) Antisemitism. In Holocaust encyclopedia. Retrieved October 7, 2019, from https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/antisemitism
Note: If the author is the same as the website, omit the website component. If an encyclopedia is continuously updated and does not have an archived version, include the retrieval date.
Source: Publication Manual, 10.3 (examples 47-48)
Author, A. or ScreenName. (Year, Month Day). Title of blog post. Blog Title. http://xxxxx
Please note that for blogs, the post title is formatted normally and the blog title is italicized.
Example 1: Screen Name
Headsman. (2009, August 17). 1909: Madanlal Dhingra, Indian revolutionary. ExecutedToday.com. http://www.executedtoday.com/2009/08/17/1909-madanlal-dhingra-indian-revolutionary/
Example 2: Full Name
Wade, L. (2009, August 7). What makes a person homeless? Sociological Images. http://contexts.org/socimages/2009/08/07/what-makes-a-person-homeless/
Source: Publication Manual, 10.1 (example 17); Blog Post and Blog Comment References [APA Style]
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of report (Report No. xxx). Website. http://xxxxx
Example 1: Individual Author
Haugen, S. E. (2009). Measures of labor underutilization from the current population survey (Working Paper No. 424). Bureau of Labor Statistics. http://www.bls.gov/osmr/pdf/ec090020.pdf
Example 2: Organizational Author
For agencies that are part of a hierarchy, you can use the specific agency instead of including the full hierarchy. If you introduce an abbreviation in your first in-text citation, you may use that abbreviation in subsequent citations.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2011). Your guide to anemia (NIH Publication No. 11-7629). http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/blood/anemia-yg.pdf
First Time: (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [NHLBI], 2011)
All Subsequent Times: (NHLBI, 2011)
Note: if the author and website are the same, omit the website.
Example 3: Report Retrieved from Other Site
Matese, M. A. (1997, March). Accountability-based sanctions (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Fact Sheet No. 58). National Criminal Justice Reference Service. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/fs-9758.pdf
Use this for videos posted on websites or blogs, such as YouTube, TED, a news website, etc. If you are citing a direct quotation from a video, you can use the time stamp in place of a page number within the in-text citation (see Example 1).
Author, A. A. [username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Website. http://xxxxx
Example 1: Full Name
Jones, P. [patrickJMT]. (2009, October 24). Easily memorize the unit circle [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=03McKEg9ASA
In-text citation: (Jones, 2009, 1:15)
Example 2: User Name Only
Vercamath. (2011, July 25). Parallel universes explained [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GWaB3SksOQU
Example 3: TED Talk
Gavagan, E. (2012, April). A story about knots and surgeons [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/ed_gavagan_a_story_about_knots_and_surgeons
TED. (2016, August 30). Suzanne Simard: How trees talk to each other [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Un2yBgIAxYs
Note: If citing from the TED website, list the speaker as the author. If citing from YouTube, list TED (or the account) as the author and include the speaker's name in the title.
You may also need to provide an attribution if you include the image in your paper.
Photographer, A. A. (copyright year). Title of photograph [Photograph]. Website. http://xxxxx
Zemlianichenko, A. (1997). Russian President Boris Yeltsin dancing at a rock concert [Photograph]. The Pulitzer Prizes. https://www.pulitzer.org/winners/alexander-zemlianichenko
Artist, A. A. (copyright year). Title of work [Medium: Painting, drawing, sculpture, photograph, etc.]. Museum, Location. http://xxxxx
Flack, A. (1988). Islandia, goddess of the healing waters [Sculpture]. Harn Museum of Art, Gainesville, FL, United States. http://www.harn.ufl.edu/collections/8_e.html
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of brochure or fact sheet [Type]. Website. http://xxxxx.
If the author and website names are the same, omit the website component
Cancer Research UK. (2014). World cancer factsheet [Fact sheet]. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/sites/default/files/cs_report_world.pdf
Nissan. (n.d.). 2020 Altima [Brochure]. Retrieved March 10, 2020, from https://www.nissanusa.com/content/dam/Nissan/us/vehicle-brochures/2020/2020-nissan-altima-brochure-en.pdf
Author, A. A. or Organization. (Year). Title of press release [Press release]. http://xxxxx
Santa Fe College. (2010). Film production classes and casting agent coming to SF [Press release]. http://news.sfcollege.edu/read.php/2010/09/03/film-production-classes-and-casting-agent-coming-to-sf.html
Source: Publication Manual, 10.4 (example 59); Press Release References [APA Style]
Author. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from http://xxxxx
Florida Memes. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from https://www.facebook.com/morefloridamemes/
Specific Posting On Facebook Profile or Page
If you cite a particular post, you must cite it in the References page; you can follow the example and guidelines below.
Author. (Year, Month Day). Text of Facebook post, up to 20 words [Image attached] [Status update/Video/Infographic/Image]. Facebook. http://xxxxx
CNN. (2013, October 22). Could a mouse's back potentially hold the cure for baldness? A breakthrough may be on the horizon, researchers say. http://on.cnn.com/1cTftYk [Thumbnail link] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/cnn/posts/10152027847166509
Source: Publication Manual, 10.15 (examples 105-106); Facebook References [APA Style]
Author, A. A. [@twittername]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from http://xxxxx
Tyson, N. G. [@neiltyson]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from https://twitter.com/neiltyson
If you cite a particular post ('tweet'), you must cite it in the References page; you can follow the example and guidelines below.
Author, A. A.. [@twittername]. (Year, Month Day). Full text of tweet [Image attached/Thumbnail with link attached/etc] [Tweet]. Twitter. http://xxxxx
Obama, B. [@BarackObama]. (2009, July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020: http://bit.ly/gcTX7 [Tweet]. Twitter. http://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366
Tyson, N. G. [@neiltyson]. (2019, July 15). I love the smell of the universe in the morning [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/neiltyson/status/1179714452553420802
Source: Publication Manual 10.15 (examples 103-104); Twitter References [APA Style]